Posts by Peter Eng

The Clarity of a Spirit-Directed Life


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In Praise of the Disruptive?


You would have heard it. Our local media repeatedly extol “disruptive technology.” It is always spoken in glowing terms or with an assumption that disruptive technology is wonderful and we should jump in as soon as possible, and to the best of our ability. I wonder why.

When a child is disruptive in school, it’s considered a negative. If we have someone disruptive at our worship service that is not good. If someone is disruptive to our political system, that person would be a threat to the establishment. Yet the media, and it is surely done with approval from others above them, seem infatuated with disruption.

When disruption is the goal

Disruption should never be the goal. And it rarely is. The media focus for people to come up with disruptive technology is a wrong social construct. Disruptive technologies put people out of work, it impoverishes people and makes desperate people out of decent folks. For instance, if driverless cars take control, many taxi operators and truck drivers will lose their means of gainful employment. Yet, I must be quick to add that I am in favor of progress, even when there is disruption.

Every time something is done differently, there will be winners and losers. It doesn’t have to be technology. For instance, when highways are built, they bypass small towns and these towns languish. The ability to move quickly from one place to another and the ability to cover great distances is a winner for some and a loser for others.

This is the same with any government policy. For instance, the ability to acquire private land for public housing results in gain for many who need housing, but loss for those whose lands are acquired for a pittance. This action is disruptive to land owners. I am not making a moral judgment here but I am here to point out that with the exception of the status quo, there will always be disruption, and new technology is not the reason for disruption.

While it is apparent that the Bible does not talk about disruptive technology, God is very concerned with the welfare of people in a society. The praise of disruptive technology cheers the winners and ignores the losers. That is where I believe the media got it wrong. A compassionate society is not one that roots for winners and abandons losers. And again, I acknowledge that the government has all kinds of schemes to help people adapt to change. I do not dispute these attempts. I just take issue with the narrative that disruptive technology is good.

Innovation not disruption

Innovative technology should be the goal, not disruptive technology. Innovation seeks to improve things. When things improve, some will be left behind. There will be disruption. But that disruption is the unintended consequence of progress. This may seem like a fine point for some, but it is significant.

Innovations begin with the premise there are some unmet needs and you have a way to meet those needs. Perhaps you have a way to alleviate traffic jams. Perhaps you have a way to organize so we waste less. Whatever the issue may be, you come up with an innovation (technology or management) to make things better. In the process of making things better, some people will lose out, but many will benefit. Innovation focuses on how to be a positive contribution to society. The goal of innovation is good (usually), but the goal of disruption is selfish.

Disruptive technology or disruptive management is not interested in producing good in society. Its goal is to do things differently so it can grab market share, prosper, and put other people out of business. Disruptive approaches do not seek the public good, but only the good of the disrupter. It is a social evil. For this reason, there are antitrust laws that prohibit predatory corporate behavior to serve its own interest. For instance, if my goal is to disrupt the taxi services in Singapore, I may discover a way to buy up the competition and then raise the prices. That is disruption for personal gain, and there is nothing good about this.

If the goal of driverless cars is to improve safety, reduce cost, improve comfort, etc. then, the innovation is intended for good, even though there may be people who suffer loss. The goal of innovation is to bless society. The goal of disruption for its own sake is to enrich self and impoverish others.

They cannot deny the march of progress. Farming used to take up 80% of the work force. Inventions, different methods, and such like, reduced the number of people needed to produce food. Today in America, only 3% are involved in farming, and yet they have the capacity to export food. The people who lose their farming jobs go into other sectors. These farming jobs will never return. Manufacturing picked up the manpower demand lost in farming. But manufacturing is now shedding jobs on account of greater efficiencies. Lost manufacturing jobs are not coming back.

Innovations create disruptions to the lives of people. But that is not the goal, that is the unintended negative result of innovation. Innovation would produce many effects, mostly good, but there will be an unintended disruption to some people.

Don’t beggar your neighbor

It starts with the heart. When our life purpose is to love God supremely and love our neighbor as ourselves, we will not try to beggar our neighbor for personal gain. If we do that, we will pull the rug under our own feet. The classic case is Napster. It was a disruptive technology based on Peer-to-Peer sharing of music. This means the musicians were no longer able to derive an income from the music they produce. If that had persisted, musicians will stop producing new music because they will not be able to survive. Napster was disruptive without regard to musicians and it beggared musicians. Napster was no more than a new way of stealing. There is nothing to celebrate about that.

If I were a developer and I want to acquire a piece of land to build and make money, I can go the collective sale route or I can simply send in arsonists to torch the place and buy it at fire-sale prices. Both actions are ultimately disruptive because the residents have to move. But one seeks to share the wealth whereas the other seeks to maximize profit by beggaring the neighbor.

While no technology is involved in the above example, the point is that there will be disruptions in life. We cannot escape it. It is neither good nor bad in itself. But when there is no love for one’s neighbor and one uses technology, or arson, or any other means to disrupt for personal gain, it is morally wrong.

Building God’s kingdom

Sometimes we wonder how our work-a-day lives contribute to live out our life purpose and build the kingdom of God.

It is not easy to give an answer because our world has become extremely complex. Your job may seem very remote from any relevance to building God’s kingdom. But the principle is actually simple enough. But it is the application of the principle that we need to recognize.

Our purpose is to live out the Great Command (love God and neighbor) and the Great Commission (make disciples).

So how do I love God in my weekly or my daily schedule? Do I set aside time to spend with him and enjoy his presence? I don’t understand the work of investment banking and cannot tell you whether it is virtuous or not. But investment banking is notorious for burning out their staff. Recently, an email from Moelis & Co (global independent investment bank) went viral. Apparently a staffer sent out an email that he checked and found no one in office at 2:00am (apparently actual time was 12:30am). He chided the staff for not being there! (Moelis is notorious for long hours, so this may be a fabrication to put the issue in the spotlight.)

If your job leaves you no place for God, that job should have no place in your life. If your job beggars your neighbor rather than bless him, then it is time to plan your exit.

I believe there is a fundamental problem with trying to be disruptive and there is a fundamental virtue in innovation. The goal of disruption is inconsistent with kingdom building work. The goal of innovation is consistent with kingdom building. But if our innovation is inadvertently disruptive, we need to ask if we have the power to ameliorate that disruption; and if we do, then we have a moral duty to provide a softer landing for those we inadvertently disrupt.

“Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth.”
(1 Corinthians 13:6)

Pastor Peter Eng


I Will Rise


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Who Nailed Jesus to the Cross?


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The Stones Cry Out


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Consecrated by the Spirit


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1. Has the sermon helped you in how you make decisions from here on?

2. Now that you are aware of the principles governing the Nazirite vow in consecrating a time in your life to God, how does it relate to your life?

3. What is the life lesson you learn from the consecration of Samuel as a Nazirite?

4. How did the example of Moses giving up all that Egypt has to offer speak to you in how you want your life to be?



Conceived and Called by the Spirit


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1. Did you gain new spiritual insight or a greater clarity of something you already know?

2. Did the word of God speak comfort or blessing to you?

3. To what extent are you aware of what God is doing through you? If you are, please share with your calling from God.

4. What does it mean to you that your small actions can have enormous impact?



Spirit Directed Life Mission


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Discussion Questions for Life Group

1. Share one time when the Holy Spirit stopped you from doing something.

2. Share one time when the Holy Spirit led you to do something.

3. Are you at a point of decision right now? Share with us how you plan to make your decision.



The Radical Holiness of the Holy Spirit


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Discussion Questions for Life Group

1. Who do you think is a holy person? What makes him/her holy?

2. Do you think of yourself as holy? Why or why not?

3. Did your view of what constitutes holiness change over time? How so?


Signs and Wonders: God’s Creation of a People

“Signs and wonders” is most commonly associated with certain Christians. They argue that the way to evangelize is through signs and wonders. “This was what Jesus and the apostles did,” they say.

Their claim has some merit. Scripture records for us what the Apostle Peter said to the people at Pentecost. “Fellow Israelites, listen to this: Jesus of Nazareth was a man accredited by God to you by miracles, wonders and signs, which God did among you through him, as you yourselves know.” (Acts 2:22). In addition, that was how God chose to confirm the message of the Apostles. “So Paul and Barnabas spent considerable time there, speaking boldly for the Lord, who confirmed the message of his grace by enabling them to perform signs and wonders.” (Acts 14:3).

“Power evangelism” is the term they use for evangelism that is accompanied by “signs and wonders”—which is mostly healing. So the claim is that if you want to reach the world effectively for Jesus, you need to do so with signs and wonders. Let us put aside our questions, but just look at Scripture without the burden of proving one thing or another.


It may surprise some to learn that “signs and wonders” did start from the OT.

The first use of “signs and wonders” began early in the OT when God told Moses “But I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and though I multiply my signs and wonders in Egypt he will not listen to you. (Exodus 7:3-4). This is then repeated in Deuteronomy looking back to the same event, saying, “The Lord did miraculous signs and wonders before our eyes, dealing terrifying blows against Egypt and Pharaoh and all his people.” (Deuteronomy 6:22, NLT, cf. Deut. 3:24; 7:19; 11:3; 26:8; 29:3; 34:11). There is a remarkable uniformity of reference in these occurrences. These signs and wonders were all said with reference to what was done against Egypt. Every single reference to “signs and wonders” in the Pentateuch (first five books of the Bible) identifies the signs and wonders as what God did to Egypt for the Hebrews. We will call this the “Exodus Event.”

The OT references outside of the Pentateuch use this term in the same way. Jeremiah spoke of “signs and wonders in Egypt,” and “You brought your people Israel out of Egypt with signs and wonders.” (Jeremiah 32:20,21). Nehemiah speaks of “signs and wonders against Pharaoh” (Nehemiah 9:10). As in the Pentateuch, every single reference to signs and wonders points to what was done to Egypt to deliver God’s chosen people so they can be a nation as promised to Abraham.

The Psalms also use this term, speaking of “the day he displayed his signs in Egypt.” (78:43) Also, “He sent Moses … and Aaron. They performed signs among them, his wonders in the land of Ham.” (105:26-27). Here “Ham” is used as a poetic equivalent of Egypt as the reference goes back to Moses and Aaron.  “He sent his signs and wonders into your midst, Egypt, against Pharaoh and all his servants.” (135:9). Up to this point, every reference to “signs and wonders” is to Yahweh’s acts of sheer power against Egypt/Pharaoh in delivering his people from Egypt.

In the book of Daniel, Nebuchadnezzar (the Babylonian king), also uses this term. “It is my pleasure to tell you about the miraculous signs and wonders that the Most High God has performed for me.” (Daniel 4:2). Even though Nebuchadnezzar was never delivered by Yahweh in the way Israel was delivered, and Egypt was not involved, he uses similar language. However, he immediately follows up with the declaration of God’s kingdom, “How great are his signs, | how mighty his wonders! His kingdom is an eternal kingdom; his dominion endures from generation to generation. (4:3)

It appears that Nebuchadnezzar is appropriating to his own life God’s signs and wonders in the building of God’s eternal kingdom, which stands apart from Babylon.

In Daniel, the Persian king, Darius said: “I issue a decree that in every part of my kingdom people must fear and reverence the God of Daniel.

“For he is the living God and … his kingdom will not be destroyed,
  his dominion will never end. | He rescues and he saves;
  he performs signs and wonders | in the heavens and on the earth.
He has rescued Daniel from the power of the lions.” (Daniel 6:26-27)

Here, Darius begins with God’s eternal kingdom and follows it with the declaration of “signs and wonders,” adding a reference to the amazing deliverance of Daniel from the lions.

Two foreign kings use “signs and wonders,” without reference to God delivering Israel from Egypt, but with reference to God’s eternal kingdom.

Summary. There are two meanings to “signs and wonders” in the OT: (1) the Exodus Event and (2) the eternal kingdom of God. The Exodus Event is the event that created a nation. The eternal kingdom is also the creation of a nation, but this nation, unlike other nations before, will not be created through human means, will sweep away all the nations that come before (Babylonia, Persia, Greece and Rome), and it will last forever (Daniel 2). This was powerfully fulfilled when Jesus was born under the Roman Empire, swept it away, has endured and continues to endure to this day. We are living in this period of fulfillment. The formation of Israel in the Exodus Event and the formation of the eternal kingdom will be accompanied by “signs and wonders.” The two references to “signs and wonders” in the OT seem disparate at first, but they are really powerfully tied together. “Signs and wonders” in history (the Exodus Event) and “signs and wonders” in prophecy (the inauguration of the eternal kingdom). God had formed national Israel through signs and wonders; God will form his eternal kingdom through signs and wonders.


When we come to the NT, we see the repeated declaration that the kingdom of God has come. This is the good news. God’s Messiah has come to establish the eternal kingdom of God spoken by the prophet Daniel.

In the proclamation of the Good News

Jesus brought in the kingdom of God by his life, death and resurrection. From the start of his ministry, “Jesus went throughout Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, proclaiming the good news of the kingdom, and healing every disease and sickness among the people.  News about him spread all over Syria, and people brought to him all who were ill with various diseases, those suffering severe pain, the demon-possessed, those having seizures, and the paralyzed; and he healed them. Large crowds from Galilee, the Decapolis, Jerusalem, Judea and the region across the Jordan followed him. (Matthew 4:23-25).

The term “signs and wonders” is not a restrictive term but a general term encompassing healing, freeing the demon possessed, and the miraculous works of nature. We see Jesus doing two things in tandem: proclaiming the good news of the (eternal) kingdom and healing people from diseases and from demonic possession. This is exactly as prophesied in Daniel. The Apostle Peter reminds the people of Israel, “Fellow Israelites, listen to this: Jesus of Nazareth was a man accredited by God to you by miracles, wonders and signs, which God did among you through him, as you yourselves know.” (Acts 2:22).

While Jesus was powerful, the disciples were powerless – until the day of power, the day of Pentecost. This was the day when the disciples took up where Jesus left off. And when the Holy Spirit was poured out on them, they became God’s agents to perform signs and wonders.

On the day of Pentecost, the Apostle Peter explained, “This is what was spoken by the prophet Joel … ‘I will show wonders in the heavens above and signs on the earth below.’” (Acts 2:16,19).  “Everyone was filled with awe at the many wonders and signs performed by the apostles.” (Acts 2:43). We note that most of the signs and wonders came through the apostles. This showed the people the apostles were indeed God’s servants. It also authenticates the message. The authentication of the messenger and the message are really one and the same matter. If the messenger is true, the message is also true.  We are told repeatedly, The apostles performed many signs and wonders among the people. …” (Acts 5:12).  “So Paul and Barnabas spent considerable time there, speaking boldly for the Lord, who confirmed the message of his grace by enabling them to perform signs and wonders.” (Acts 14:3). …“by the power of signs and wonders, through the power of the Spirit of God. … I have fully proclaimed the gospel of Christ. (Romans 15:19). “I persevered in demonstrating among you the marks of a true apostle, including signs, wonders and miracles.” (2 Corinthians 12:12) “God also testified to it by signs, wonders and various miracles, and by gifts of the Holy Spirit distributed according to his will.” (Hebrews 2:4).

Summary. Signs and wonders accompanied the ministry of Jesus and of the Apostles as they proclaimed the eternal kingdom of God. “Signs and wonders,” especially healing, accomplished four things: (1) it caught the people’s attention; (2) it authenticated the messenger; (3) it authenticated the message; (4) it fulfilled the prophecy in Daniel.

In the conversion of Gentiles

The majority of people in God’s Kingdom today are Gentiles. It is easy to forget the first Christians were Jews who struggled with the question: “Who should inherit God’s Kingdom? Or, to whom should we share this Good News?” Acts outline for us God’s hand in leading the early church from Hebraic/Aramaic-speaking Jews to Greek-speaking Jews to Gentiles. This was a severe culture shock to the first Christians, and the Holy Spirit of God had to demonstrate to them clearly that such was his intention.

Acts tells us the first church had both Hebraic/Aramaic-speaking Jews and Greek-speaking Jews). To serve the needs of the Greek-speaking Jews, “They chose Stephen, a man full of faith and of the Holy Spirit.” (Acts 6:5).   “Now Stephen, a man full of God’s grace and power, performed great wonders and signs among the people.” (Acts 6:8). Stephen was the spearhead messenger of Good news to the Greek-speaking Jews. Those who rejected his message plotted his death (Acts 6:9ff). Stephen’s death accelerated the spread of the Good News because Christians fled Jerusalem, bringing the Good News everywhere (Acts 8:1,4).

Now those who had been scattered by the persecution that broke out when Stephen was killed traveled as far as Phoenicia, Cyprus and Antioch, spreading the word only among Jews. Some of them, however, men from Cyprus and Cyrene, went to Antioch and began to speak to Greeks also, telling them the good news about the Lord Jesus. The Lord’s hand was with them, and a great number of people believed and turned to the Lord. (Acts 11:19-21)

Luke intends to show us that the proclamation of the good news to the Gentiles is superintended by God. It began with Stephen who was authenticated by God through signs and wonders.

Next, we have the account of the conversion of Cornelius by Peter. Cornelius was not a Jew, and not circumcised. But when he believed, the Holy Spirit came on him and he spoke in tongues (Acts 10:44-48). Since God had approved Cornelius without circumcision, Peter decided to baptize Cornelius. But “the circumcised believers criticized him  and said, ‘You went into the house of uncircumcised men and ate with them.’” (Acts 11:2-3). Peter explained, “As I began to speak, the Holy Spirit came on them as he had come on us at the beginning. … So if God gave them the same gift he gave us who believed in the Lord Jesus Christ, who was I to think that I could stand in God’s way?” (Acts 11:15-17).

The issue of baptism without circumcision finally came to a head with all the church leaders meeting to deliberate on the issue (Acts 15). “The whole assembly became silent as they listened to Barnabas and Paul telling about the signs and wonders God had done among the Gentiles through them.” (Acts 15:12) And this finally convinced the circumcised believers that they could baptize Gentiles without circumcision, and circumcision should not be required of Gentiles.

Summary. The supernatural manifestation of God variously described, through healing, tongues, miracles, signs and wonders, were used by God to show the early Christians that the promises of God’s Kingdom were not limited to the Jews, but were available to the Gentiles without their first becoming Jews through circumcision.

As God’s concession

One day a desperate man pleaded with Jesus to heal his son. Jesus lamented, “Unless you people see signs and wonders … you will never believe.” (John 4:48). This refers to the miracle of healing of someone whose son was about to die. Jesus obliged the desperate father even though this is not what Jesus wants to see. The sad reality is that people want to see healing before they will believe. This event reveals God’s heart on the matter of miraculous signs. It is not the ideal way for God to reveal himself, but he does it as a concession to human need for proof.

One great danger associated with miraculous deliverance such as healing, is that it breeds the expectation that God must always heal. This is not true. God will ultimately heal in the resurrection. But the ultimate healing of God at the resurrection is different from God healing us every time we fall sick. If that were so, we would not die! The curse on Adam has been neutralized by the death and resurrection of Jesus.

God wants to be wanted for himself. By providing a supernatural intervention, people tend to want God for what he can give. Even though it draws people to God, there is an inherent danger associated with supernatural signs.

Another grave danger is that the awe of miracles will quickly wear out. The Israelites had the daily miracle of manna, but that became the new normal and the daily miracle did not help them obey God any better.

This brings us to yet another grave danger of depending on signs and wonders for our faith. It leads us to stop evaluating truth claims and we become susceptible to falsehood.

Negatively as a warning

On the Mount of Olives, Jesus warned his disciples, “For false messiahs and false prophets will appear and perform great signs and wonders to deceive, if possible, even the elect.” (Matthew 24:24; cf. Mark 13:22). The miracles here do not come from Jesus the true Messiah, but from false messiahs and false prophets. These false teachers will use miracles to try to deceive God’s people.

Paul affirms strongly that in the last days, “lawless one will use all sorts of displays of power through signs and wonders that serve the lie.” (2 Thessalonians 2:9). This is a clear warning to believers, that as much as they have been brought to faith through signs and wonders, the evil one will seek to use the same method to deceive.

In Connection with the OT

The NT continues the OT tradition of using “signs and wonders” to describe the deliverance of the Hebrews from Egypt. (Acts 7:36).  It is such a well-established idea that it does not require repetition; instead, the NT moves on to the fulfillment of the eternal kingdom of God through miraculous signs and wonders.

Summary for the NT

In the NT, “signs and wonders” together with healing, is (1) an important means of drawing people to Jesus so they will listen to the message. This was also true with the Apostles. (2) “Signs and wonders” authenticate the messenger. (3) They also authenticate the message. (4) The miraculous accompanying the proclamation of the kingdom of God is fulfillment of prophecy. (5) The use of the miraculous for the people to accept the Good News is not considered ideal and Jesus lamented over it. It is a divine concession to hard-hearted people. (6) There are inherent dangers when people use signs and wonders as proof because the evil one is able to act falsely to imitate these signs and wonders and lead people astray. There is therefore a severe warning about false messiahs using signs and wonders.


“Signs and wonders” describes a phenomenon which includes tongues, healing, judgments, etc. They are supernatural acts that demonstrate God’s deliverance. In the OT, there is restricted reference to the Exodus Event, and in the Book of Daniel it is tied in to God’s eternal kingdom.

Jesus and his Apostles brought in the eternal kingdom of God through miracles. This replicates the Exodus Event, and fulfills the connection established in Daniel. The eternal kingdom of God is pried out of the hands of the evil one, no less that Israel was pried out of Pharaoh’s clutches. God’s people in Jesus are delivered from our bondage to sin. And when God wins, the devil loses.

“Signs and wonders” is not the norm in Israel’s history beyond her inception. While there were miracles throughout the history of Israel, they were not of the magnitude or character as the Exodus Event. This also holds true for the eternal kingdom of God. The inauguration of the kingdom under Jesus and the Apostles was a season of unparalleled miracles, but there is no evidence of the same level of miracles sustained over the years.

It is not the purpose of this article to advocate the cessation of the miraculous. I will only opine that it may be an overreach to say all miracles have ceased. At the same time, to argue that the supernatural events surrounding the inception of God’s eternal kingdom ought to be repeated in our day and age is a dangerous overreach in the opposite direction. And this overreach is more dangerous than the other because of the inherent dangers of proving truth with miracles. The Bible warns us that in the last days, the “lawless one” will be using this tool to deceive.

We cannot relive the miracles of the early church any more than Israel can relive the miracles of the Exodus. We need to see that the use of the miraculous is not God’s preferred method in the long run as Jesus himself lamented it, even while he was healing miraculously.

May the Lord grant us clarity and boldness as we study his word. Amen!

Pastor Peter Eng